Florence has been selected by Roberto Amati in relation to the real history of european integration, then enlisted in the CITY OR CIVITAS category, accompanied by own fact SHEET useful to the comprehension, completed of historical MAPS AND IMAGES or with a direct linking to the related Blog contents dedicated to the entire history of european integration and the future of Europe.

Florence civitas

Florence is one of the most ancient cities of the history of European integration, signed in great part by Christianity. The Civitas Florence was founded in 59 BC by Romans that assigned the name of flower and established a new Colonia inhabited by families of Latin veterans which received large pieces of the public land (Ager Romanus) to share with the local people. Florence is located in a strategic point at the crossing of ancient roman ways: the Claudia Augusta Way starting from Florence towards the North through the civitas of Bologna and Verona up to Augsburg to end in Milan; the Cassia Way starting from Rome and connecting with the Aurelia Way to reach the port of Genoa

Within the reform of Augustus (see Roman Empire), Florence was included into the Regio VII Etruria of the Italiae province and elevated as capital because became rapidly an important commercial centre and could control the fertile valley of Arno river. With the reform of Constantine I (see Christian Empire), Florence became part of the imperial Italiae Diocesis and became one of the most populated christian community.

After the Gothic War and the invasion of Lombards, Florence was included in the Duchy of Tuscia until it was conquered by Charlemagne and included into the Italy Regnum assigning the March of Tuscia to the homonimous family. They transferred the residency in Florence around 1000 AD e the city restarted the commercial and craftsmanship activities, exploiting the Arno river to join the international trade protected by Pisa mariner republique and developing the textile industry and merchant banking skills that made the fortune of the "Comune" and the élite growing power. The urban people grew up such as the rural population at the middle of XIV century AD, when riots began among the oligarchic families (started during the "guelfi&ghibellini" war) divided in "blacks and whites" parties, won by the banker family of Medici who took the control of Florence for centuries.

Under the Medici government, Florence became a rich and populated republic and could extend its control onto the sourronding rural areas, being the dominus of the ancient Tuscia March, once defeated the rival city of Siena. Thanks to Lorenzo "the magnificient" at the end of XV century AD, Florence became the italian centre for culture, arts and finance, by starting the "Reinassance epoque" that spreaded all around Europe on the basis of the christian culture of "Humanism" developed in the same city by the most famous literates and poets of Middle Age (such as Petrarca, Dante and Boccaccio). The commissioning works of Lorenzo and his successors made the fortune of Florence and its magnifient city centre, thanks to the operas of Leonardo, Michelangelo and Botticelli.

Always allied to the Roman Church, the Medici family entered the European genalogies in XVI century thanks to the new Reich emperor Charles V who permit them to have two popes and confirmed their political power in Tuscia region and northern Italy by assigning the title of Duchy of Florence. Afterthat, the Medici family became allied of the French kings by giving two queens to Borbone dinasty, that ruled the Kingdom of Etruria created in 1801 AD by Napoleon I before the annexion of Tuscany to his empire. With the Wien Congress of 1815 AD, Florence and Tuscany got back to the Hapsburg-Tuscany dinasty (that originated from the imperial Reich family) and ruled the Great-Duchy of Tuscany until its annextion to the Italy kingdom under the Savoy dinasty, who moved the capitalto Florence in 1864 AD until the "capture of Rome".

Nowadays, Florence is one of the most tourists visited city of the world, thanks to the Uffizi Museum, the unique architectural monuments and arts manufactured, the rich collections of Medieval and Reinassance pieces of art and the large number of art-filled churches densely concentrated in "the historic centre of Florence "enlisted in the UNESCO Wordl Heritage. Elevated capital of the metropolitan city and of the Tuscany region within the Italian Republic, the patron of Florence is St. John the Baptiste the prophet who baptized Jesus and recognized him as "the Christ".

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