Lyon has been selected by Roberto Amati in relation to the real history of european integration, then enlisted in the CITY OR CIVITAS category, accompanied by own fact SHEET useful to the comprehension, completed of historical MAPS AND IMAGES or with a direct linking to the related Blog contents dedicated to the entire history of european integration and the future of Europe.

Lyon civitas

Lyon is one of the most ancient cities of the history of European integration, signed in great part by Christianity. The Civitas Lyon was founded in 43 BC by Romans at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers at the end of the conquering war for Provence, as the Colonia Copia Felix Munatia populated by part of the Celts people expelled from Vienne together with Italics. At that times the city was called Caput Galliæ, meaning "capital of the Gauls": as an homage to this title, the Archbishop of Lyon is still called the Primate of Gaul, cause it has been one of the earliest Christian communities. For its strategic position and natural communication hub, Lyon was sited at the crossing point of two main roman ways: the Flavia Way starting in Xanten and passing through the civitas of Cologne, Trier, Metz, Chalon-sur-Saône, Vienne and Arles; the Flavia III way starting in Lyon and passing through Limoges to end in the ancient roman civitas of Saintes on the Atlantic ocean coast.

Within the reform of Augustus (see Roman Empire), Lyon was the capital of the Gallia Lugdunensis province and obtained the building of an amphitheatre, the Fourvière Basilica with the Ancient Theatre and the Odeon, which are still visible today. With the reform of Constantine I (see Christian Empire), Lyon became the capital of the Galliarum Diocesi and Primate of Gaul starting the evangelization of Gallia and Germany provinces. At the falling of Western Roman Empire, the city was included as capital of the Burgundian Reign founded in 461 AD and involved in the Arian eresy, then persecuted by the Catholics Church of Rome so that Lyon has been seat of two synods in alternative at the near rival city of Vienne for centuries.

After the conquering of Franks, Lyon was eliged capital of the Frankish Kingdom of Burgundy but frequently terrorised by the Vikings raiders during all the IX century AD. Even though with the renovatio imperii of Charlemagne the city was confirmed capital of the reign under the rule of Bosoni dinasty, that ceded their feudum to Welfen family joined to their possession into the Kingdom of Arles. At the extinction of the royal family, their kingdom were inherited by the emperors of Reich and under Federick I "Barbarossa" regained political and economic prominence, confirmed Lyon as principal archibishopric seat and commercial strategic point on the trading routes from Mediterranean sea to the Northern. Only in 14th century AD Lyon passed under the control of the France kingdom, by following its destiny until today.

In Modern era, Lyon became the principle rival of Paris in French development, thanks to Italian merchants who made th city the economic counting house of France, the banking centre of France and the first Bourse of the country. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy, whose influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the late XIV and XV centuries Lyon was also a key centre of literary activity and book publishing and became the main pole of university education of France. In 1572 AD, in Lyon happened a mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, while during the French Revolution the citizenry supported the Girondins and the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies and many buildings were destroyed. In the Second World War, Lyon was part of the Vichy Republic occupaid by Nazi forces but was also a stronghold of the French Resistance.

Today the districts of Old Lyon, the Fourvière hill, the Presqu'île and the slopes of the Croix-Rousse are is enlisted in the UNESCO Wordl Heritage. Lyon is a medium size town in the east of France, capital of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, whose patron is Saint Irenaeus the second bishop ot he city and favorable to the dialogue with Gnosticism.

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