Milan has been selected by Roberto Amati in relation to the real history of european integration, then enlisted in the CITY OR CIVITAS category, accompanied by own fact SHEET useful to the comprehension, completed of historical MAPS AND IMAGES or with a direct linking to the related Blog contents dedicated to the entire history of european integration and the future of Europe.

Milan civitas

Milan is one of the most ancient cities of the history of European integration, signed in great part by Christianity. The Civitas Milan was founded centuries BC during the "Golasecca culture" age by Celts Insubres tribe with the name "Medhelanon", used in 222 BC by Romans that latinized the original name in Mediolanum and established a new Colonia inhabited by families of Latin veterans which received large pieces of the public land (Ager Romanus) to share with the local people. Milan was elevated as capital of the Cisalpina Gaul province, located in a strategic point at the crossing of ancient roman ways: the Claudia Augusta Way starting from Milan towards the North up to Augsburg and passing through the civitas of Verona and Bologna to end in Florence; the Helvetica Way starting from Piacenza and connecting Italy with the Gaul provinces by ending in Vienne.

Within the reform of Augustus (see Roman Empire), Milan was included into the Regio XI Transpadana of the Italiae province and elevated as capital because became an important commercial centre and could control the fertile valley of Po and Ticino rivers. During the civil war in III century AD, emperor Diocletian made Milan the capital of the Pars Occidens (Western Part) of the Empire and the August resident Maximian built several gigantic monuments still visible traces remained. With the reform of Constantine I (see Christian Empire), Milan became part of the imperial Italiae Diocesis and one of the most populated christian community of the Empire: the new emperor in 313 AD issued in Milan the Edict of tolerance for Christianity and at the end of 4th century AD Saint Ambrose, nominated bishop of Milan, had a strong influence on the layout of the city reshaping the centre by building the great basilicas at the city gates: Sant'Ambrogio, San Nazaro in Brolo, San Simpliciano and Sant'Eustorgio, which still stand. Moreover, he has been a central character of the Christianity history whose heritage includes the "Ambrosian Rite" used still today in the Archdiocese of Milan, the largest of Europe.

During the barbarians invasions, Milan lost the imperial seat in favour of Ravenna and was devastated many times, losing population and power so that after the Gothic War, Lombards conquered easily the North of Italy and Milan was elevated capital of the Duchy of Milan opposed to the byzantine possessions of the Exarchate of Ravenna until both were conquered by Charlemagne and included into the Italy Regnum, within the Ivrea Mark controlled for centuries by the Anscarici dinasty. When they disputed Italy with the Ottoni imperial dinasty, Milan was annexed to the Reich in 962 AD and became a crucial trading passage for all European commerce, leader in wool and tessile and craftsmanship activities, agricultural products, so that the merchant and artigianl élite of the city received imperial privilege of "Comune" authonomy.

Under the Visconti family, Milan became a rich and populated republic and could extend its control onto the sourronding rural areas, being the dominus of the ancient Lomabrd March, once defeated the rival cities of Pavia and Como. Thanks to Duke Francesco I Sforza, Milan became one of the leading cities of the Italian Renaissance epoch: in that period were erected the central Duomo and Castle and the Navigli zone, when the Lodi Peace of 1454 AD with Medici famiiy leading Florence, the Gonzaga family duchies of Mantua, the Savoy dinasty possessing Turin, the Republic of Venice and the Roman Church State gave a relative peaceful period to Italy. Those states remained allied to defend the country against the France kingdom occupation in XVI century AD, calling for help to the new Reich emperor Charles V who annexed the Duchy of Milan to the Spain kingdom: Milan was confirmed capital of the spanish feudum and the successive Lombardy-Veneto kingdom founded and ruled by the Hapsburg-Lorena emperors after the Utrecht Peace of 1714 AD until it was conquered by Savoy Dukcy in 1859 AD and joined to the new Italy kingdom, following its destiny and history.

Nowadays, Milan is one of the most populated and business city of the world with strengths in the fields of commerce, design, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, media (communication), services, research and tourism, hosting the Italy's stock exchange (Borsa Italiana), headquarters of national and international banks and companies. The city hosts many international universitarian seats such as the Politechnic, the Bocconi Business School, the Cattolica Sacro Cuore university and the new Bovisa universitarian area. But its artistic and cultural soul is universally recognized thanks to Leonardo da Vinci's "The Last Supper" fresco into the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie that are enlisted in the UNESCO Wordl Heritage. Elevated capital of the metropolitan city and of the Lombardy region within the Italian Republic, the patron of Milan is St. Ambrose one of most important bishop of the city and the whole history of european integration.

If you want keeping in touch with the author send an email. Learn more on the book and next presentations: click here!