Naples has been selected by Roberto Amati in relation to the real history of european integration, then enlisted in the CITY OR CIVITAS category, accompanied by own fact SHEET useful to the comprehension, completed of historical MAPS AND IMAGES or with a direct linking to the related Blog contents dedicated to the entire history of european integration and the future of Europe.

Naples civitas

Naples is one of the most ancient cities of the history of European integration, signed in great part by Christianity. The Civitas Naples was founded around X century BC by Greeks named Parthenope becoming one of the foremost cities of Magna Graecia before to be conquered by Romans in IV century BC and transformed in the strategic Colonia Naples, having its greek name Neápolis (Νεάπολις). Always allied to Rome against Carthago and the Samnites tribe, Naples could maintain the Greek language and customs, expanding with elegant Roman villas, aqueducts and public baths, cause many emperors and patricious chose to holiday in the city or the pleasent localities around as Capri and Ischia islands. It that period, the Christianity arrived in Naples in I century AD cause the Apostles Peter and Paul are said to have preached in the city and Saint Januarius was martyred there in IV century AD. Naples has always been connected to Capua civitas, where passed two roman ways started from Rome: the old Appia way reaching the port of Brindisi and the Popilia way passing through Tusculum and Salernum to end in Regium.

Within the reform of Augustus (see Roman Empire), Naples was included into the Regio I Latium et Campania of the Italiae province, where could live together Romans, Samnites and Greeks people into Christian community that with the reform of Constantine I (see Christian Empire) became a bishopric city within the imperial Italiae Diocesis. When the Western Roman Empire imploded in 476 AD, Naples was devastated by Ostrogoths and after the Gothic War was conquered by Byzantine Empire becoming part of their the Exarchate of Ravenna.

In VII century AD the city became the capital of the Naples Ducky, then elevated to principy out of the carolingian Italy Regnum in ethernal opposition against the Benevento Ducky and the Capua Principy, often with the help of the Arabs or the Normans: who finally in 1137 AD annexed Naples to their Sicily kingdom ruled by the Altavilla dinasty until it was inherited by the Reich emperor Frederik II of the Staufer dinasty. He made Naples a rich city and the intellectual centre of the kingdom founding the first university in Europe dedicated to training secular administrators. For that reasons, the Popes involved in "guelfi&ghibellini" war against the Reich power, calling and crowning the french Angioini dinasty of the new Naples kingdom in 1266 AD.

Always allied to the Roman Church, Naples was conquered and joined to the Sicily kingdom by following its destiny since 1442 AD by Bellonidi dinasty rulers of Aragona Crown, that once joined to the new Spain kingdom founded by the new Reich emperor Charles V, confirmed Naples as capital of its reign so that it became Europe's second-largest city in XVII century AD and the major western Mediterranean port. Passed to Hapsburg-Lorraine emperors dinasty with the Utrecht Treaty 1714 AD, the Naples Kingdom was conquered by the Borbone dinasty some years after, that could rule it together into the Kingdom of Two Sicily even after the epoch of Napoleon I, by joining them in a unique kingdom with the Wien Congress of 1815 AD, until it was annexed to the Italy kingdom and followed its destiny.

Naples has always been one of the most populated and important city of Europe, where the greatest artists or intellectuals went to live and produce, capital of Baroque architectonic style and Reinassance cultural movement, seat od many republican esperiences and innovative new technologies until XIX century AD. The historic centre of Naples and the near "Archaeological Areas of Pompei, Herculaneum and Torre Annunziata" are enlisted in the UNESCO Wordl Heritage. Nowadays, Naples is the biggest city of south Italy, capital of the Campania region and metropolitan city, whose patron is St. Januarius the first bishop famous for the liquefaction of blood kept in an ampoule.

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