Palermo has been selected by Roberto Amati in relation to the real history of european integration, then enlisted in the CITY OR CIVITAS category, accompanied by own fact SHEET useful to the comprehension, completed of historical MAPS AND IMAGES or with a direct linking to the related Blog contents dedicated to the entire history of european integration and the future of Europe.

Palermo civitas

Palermo is one of the most ancient cities of the history of European integration, signed in great part by Christianity. The Civitas Palermo was founded around VIII century BC by Phoenicians on a natural harbour on the Thyrrenian sea, named Ziz and developed as trading port with Carthage and Greeks, who named it Panormos during the war to control the city in V century AD. Time after the rival civitas of Syracuse allied to Cumae and Rome, that conquered the city in 265 AD and annexed to the Roman Res Public: Romans developed its natural trading propension within the Mediterranean sea and built may luxurious residences and public services, connecting Palermo to other centres on Sicily and to Regium through the Valeria way.

Within the reform of Augustus (see Roman Empire), Palermo was included into the Siciliae province, where could live together Romans, Greeks and the ancient Sicani people into Christian community that with the reform of Constantine I (see Christian Empire) became a bishopric city within the imperial Italiae Diocesis. When the Western Roman Empire imploded in 476 AD, Palermo was conquered by Vandals and Ostrogoths but after the Gothic War was conquered by Byzantine Empire becoming part of the Exarchate of Sicilia and consequently of the Theme Sikelia: in that period were built many churches in byzantine style and the "Cuba" palace seat of the city strategos.

From 831 to 1072 AD the island went under Arabs rule, who founded the Emirate of Sicily and put the capital in Palermo: they made lots of beautiful artistic operas, such in the Cappella Palatina and the Cuba Palace, and also introduced many agricultural crops which remain a mainstay of Sicilian cuisine nowadays. Afterthat, Normans conquered Sicily in mission for the Roman Church under the Hauteville dinasty, that received the title of Sicily kingdom by reintroducing Chritstianity in the island and building many marvellous monuments in their new capital of Palermo, such as Palazzo dei Normanni (still used by the Sicilia region parliament!) and the Palermo Cathedral. When the kingdom was inherited by the Reich emperor Frederik II of the Staufer dinasty, he made Palermo a rich city and the capital of the whole Holy Roman Empire from 1220 AD! Some times after, the Sicily kingdom was conquered by Bellonidi dinasty and joined to the Aragon Crown and with new Reich emperor Charles V Palermo became capital of an imperial vice-reign and one of Mediterranean's largest city and major port in XVII century AD.

Once passed to Hapsburg-Lorraine emperors dinasty in 1700 AD, Sicilia kingdom was assigned to Savoy dinasty with the Utrecht Peace 1714 but they returned and Sicily island was definitely conquered by Borbone dinasty in 1734 AD and Palermo crowned the King Charles III, who commissioned new houses built for the growing population and developed trading and industry grew as well, but moved the capital to Naples. This happened again after the epoch of Napoleon I, when it was founded the 2 Sicily kingdom with the Wien Congress of 1815 AD with capital in Palermo, until it was annexed to the Italy kingdom and Palermo followed its destiny.

Palermo is Sicily's cultural, economic and tourism capital, a city rich in history, art, music and food. Numerous tourists are attracted to the city for its appealing Mediterranean climate, its renowned gastronomy and ancient, Romanesque, Gothic, Baroque and Art Nouveau palaces, churches and buildings, known for its colourful fruit, vegetable and fish markets at the heart of Palermo, known as "Vucciria", "Ballar├▓" and "Capo". Palermo is still one of the largest cities in the Mediterranean sea, among the top tourist destinations in Italy and Europe thanks to the "Arab-Norman Palermo and the Cathedral Churches of Cefal├╣ and Monreale" enlisted in the UNESCO Wordl Heritage. Nowadays, Palermo is a big city of south Italy, capital of the Sicily region, whose patron is the medieval hermit Saint Rosalia from 1624 AD when her appearence saved the city from the plague.

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