ROUEN CIVITAS


Rouen has been selected by Roberto Amati in relation to the real history of european integration, then enlisted in the CITY OR CIVITAS category, accompanied by own fact SHEET useful to the comprehension, completed of historical MAPS AND IMAGES or with a direct linking to the related Blog contents dedicated to the entire history of european integration and the future of Europe.



Rouen civitas


Rouen is one of the most ancient cities of the history of European integration, signed in great part by Christianity. The Civitas Rouen was founded centuries BC during the "La tène culture" age by Celts Veliocasses tribe on the estuary of the Loire river into the Atlantic Ocean and called Ratomacus, name used by the Romans when conquered the region and built a castra in I century AD named Rotomagus inhabited by Celts together with Italics but not connected to the network or roman ways.


Within the reform of Augustus (see Roman Empire), Rouen was included into the Gallia Lugdunensis province and obtained the building of an amphitheatre, the public baths, a temple dedictaed to Venus and strong fortifications still visible today. With the reform of Constantine I (see Christian Empire), Rouen became part of the Galliarum Diocesi starting the evangelization of Gallia and Brittany provinces under the bishopric founded in V century AD. At the falling of the Western Roman Empire, the city was included into the Neustria Reign and for some times Rouen was the capital of that reign and a fortress against Vikings blitz. In 553 AD the irish monks founded the Saint Ouen Abbey used to evangelize Germans people (it became part of the Cluny congregation century after).


With the renovatio imperii of Charlemagne the city was elevated to capital of the March against Vikings enfeoffed to his relative Adalard the Seneschal, one of the most important nobleman of Empire and supposed ancestor of the Lorena-Metz family. At the end of Vikings invasion, the king of France Charles III created the Normandy ducky enfeoffed to the homonimous dinasty and Rouen became its capital from 912 AD. After William of Normandy dinasty became king of England, Rouen was occupied by Geoffrey V "the good" forefather of the Anjou-Plantagenet dinasty and remained a feudum of that family for centuries controlled from the old castle. In 1150 AD Rouen received its founding charter which permitted self-government and a jewish school, founded cause about 20% of population was Jewish. Decades after the Capetingian dinasty conquered the city and built the Château Bouvreuil and a textile industry developed based on wool imported from England and sold in the Champagne fairs, while Rouen also empowered its river traffic on the Seine enjoying a monopoly for a direct route to Paris. At that age was built the famous gothic cathedral on the site of the first christian church, by copying the Saint Denis model. After many people revolts, king Philip IV expelled the Jewsih in 1306 AD, then Rouen was attacked many times by English during the "the Hundred Years' War" and took place the Joan of Arc burning. Rouen was loyal to Catholic party during the French religious war and for that erason sieged unsuccessfully for months by the new king Henry IV of Borbone.


In Modern era, Rouen remained a principle catholic bischopric in the northern France kingdom and a strategic port for trading with Britain: since then the city followed the destiny and history of the country and it was completely destroyed during the "D-Day" Allied operations in the Second World War. But Rouen nevertheless regained its economic dynamism in the post-war period thanks to its industrial sites and its large seaport, which today is the fifth largest in France. Today it is a medium size town in the north-west of France, capital of the Normandy region whose patron is Saint Romain the bishop of the city buried in the seat of the cathedral.





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