Speyer has been selected by Roberto Amati in relation to the real history of european integration, then enlisted in the CITY OR CIVITAS category, accompanied by own fact SHEET useful to the comprehension, completed of historical MAPS AND IMAGES or with a directlinking to the related Blog contents dedicated to the entire history of european integration and the future of Europe.

Speyer civitas

Speyer is one of the most ancient cities of the history of European integration, signed in great part by Christianity. The Civitas Speyer was founded in 10 BC by Romans on a strategic point at the river Rhine on the northern Limes of the Roman Empire and called Noviomagus from a teutonic local tribe name. In origin Speyer was a Castra of Germans and Romans veterans of the various legions and within the reform of Augustus Speyer became one of the most ancient cities of Germany included in the Germania Superior province, important trade and stategic civitas of the empire and connected by the roman Germanica Way starting in Cologne and passing through the civitas of Mainz and Strasbourg to end in Aosta. With the reform of Constantine I (see Christian Empire), Speyer became part of the imperial Gallia Diocesi and was an important and populated Christian community since IV century AD, simbolized by the "Old Gate" (Altpörtel) still existing.

Speyer was completely destroyed during the Barbarians invasions and refounded within the end of V century AD, when the city was occupied by the Salian Franks tribe and included in the Austrasia reign, then recovered to Christianity in the VI century by the Merovingian dinasty kings. Thanks to the english monks missions in Speyer (in latin charts called "Spira") was built the bishopric that was basis for the evangelization of Saxons, Frisons and Turingians: with the renovatio imperii of Charlemagne Speyer became one of the biggest and wide Christian archbishopric, included in the dominion of Germany reign ruled by the emperor's families with the 843 AD Treaty of Verdun. When the crown passed to german families, Speyer was part of the Ducky of Franconia ruled by Salian emperor family: in 1027 AD the emperor Conrad II started the building of the cathedral in old romaninsque style, which hosts the tombs of many members of the dinasty together with others Reich emperors of the Hapsburg family. Decades after the first Jewish community established in the city, coming from east Europe and know as "Askenaz people" and for the study of the Talmud, creating a German Jewish tradition and the regular rabbis synods since then. In 1294 AD Speyer became a "free town of the Reich" and decades after the jewish were wiped out forever! During the Protest crisis Speyer became the seat of many imperial Diets presieded by the Reich emperor Charles V and of the Imperial Chamber Court, always on the Catholic side had its priviliges confirmed with the Augusta Peace treaty and continued all along the modern era.

When the Holy Roman Empire (Reich) was dissolved in 1806 by Napoleon I, the German states were reunited into the Rhine Confederation and Speyer was designated seat of administration of the Palatinate and of the government of the Rhine District of Bavaria, and remained until the end of the Second World War when was occupied by Allied french troops until 1949 AD, then included in the new Germany state founded. Since then Speyer followed the history of the country.

Today it preserves lots of medieval buildings and religoius seats, such as "the imperial cathedral and the Jewish courtyard and ShUM city of Speyer Worms and Speyer" enlisted in the UNESCO Wordl Heritage. Nowadays Speyer is a medium size city in the west of Germany included in the Rhineland-Palatinate lander, whose patron is the "vergin" Saint Mary mother of Jesus Christ and leader of Christianity over all Germany.

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